Translation I : Housman's 'Oh, when I was in love with you'

 

 

Oh, when I was in love with you,

Then I was clean and brave,

And miles around the wonder grew

How well did I behave.

 

But now the fancy passes by

And nothing will remain

And miles around they'll say that I

Am quite myself again.

 

 

 

Ye emotey pa mi do lu su tu e mi lenans koru.

U la milex sens arun e goru pans vone beha mins gu veyti.

 

A himi pas peyti I hu reman fu.

U la milex sens arun e sagi fu e mi agenay memmi kita.

 


 

 

Oh  = {EMOT} = emotion[1]

when  =  TE,   TA+TE

I  =  MI

was  =  PA

in 

love  =  LU,   LOV

with 

you  =  TU

then  =  TI+TE

I  =  MI

was  =  PA

clean  =  LENA

and[2] 

brave  =  KORU

 

(a1)______{EMOT} TE PA< MI DO LU SU[3] TU[4] E (TE) MI LENA< (HA) KORU.

 

(a2)______________________{EMOT} PA MI DO LU SU TU E MI LENA< KORU.

 

Discussion:

 

The combination 'when...  then...' translated as `time at which... = time at which...'.

 

'was in love' translated as if it were 'loved'; they are, of course, not the same, but what exactly is the difference?

 

(a2) is shorter; 'TE PA' may be just as well replaced by 'PA': 'past time' vs. 'the past'. 'KORU' is 'courage', but, of course, 'courageous' too. `HA KORU' is weaker than plain 'KORU'. The second phrase can even do without 'TE':

      time that I loved you = I clean and brave

 

Notice the long chain:

PA = past

PA MI = my past

PA MI DO = past when I do, my past doing 

PA MI DO LU = past when I do loving, past when I love

PA MI DO LU SU = past when I love ...a direct object...

PA MI DO LU SU TU = past when I love you = when I loved you

The meaning changes with every word added, and is complete only when the phrase is terminated by 'E'.

 

 


 

and[5]  U = therefore

miles  =  [MILE] SE 

around  =  ARUN 

the 

wonder  =  VONE (=  wonderment)

grew  =  GORU PA  =   FI+BIG PA 

how[6] 

well  =  GU 

did 

I  =  MI 

behave.  =  BEHA

 

(b1)_____U VONE GORU PA< ARUN [MILE] SE   E MI BEHA (RI) GU TI+VE.

 

(b2)_____U MI BEHA (RI) GU TI+VE E ZO GORU VONE<  ARUN [MILE] SE. 

 

(b3)_____U VO/RI ARUN [MILE] SE  VONE GORU PA E MI BEHA GU TI+VE.

 

(b4)_____U [MILE] SE< ARUN  E GORU PA< VONE BEHA MI< GU TI+VE.

 

Discussion:

      The first three translations are less effective than the original. The emphasis by position of 'miles around' is unnatural in LANUG; 'miles around' is a modifier, and so it must follow! Even (b3) has the prefix as first element, before the emphatic RI (RI means `main topic', and works like underlining or boldface). (b2) is a flat statement, (b1) has some emphasis by position of 'ARUN [MILE] SE'.

On the other hand, (b4) may be translated:

      'miles around = grew wonderment at my behavior so good.'

The copula joins the first phrase, rather fragmentary, with the second one, which is a complete sentence. Replacing the equal sign:

      'miles around is where grew wonderment at my behavior so good'

one gets a decent English statement, with the right emphasis. 'where' is implied by the sense of the first phrase, which is locative ('miles around').

      One could also use rule #2b:

 

(b5)_____U ARUN [MILE] SE A\GORU PA< VONE BEHA MI< GU TI+VE.

 

but that is really a last resort.

 

 

 


 

but  =  A 

now  =  TI+PE 

the 

fancy  =  HIMI

passes  =  PAS

by 

and[7]  =  I

nothing  =  HU,  HU+DI,  HU+DA

will  =  FU

remain  =  REMAN

 

(c )______________________________A HIMI PAS TI+PE I HU REMAN FU.

 

Discussion: Straightforward translation 'but whim passing now and no remainder in future'

 

 

 

and  =  U

miles  =  [MILE] SE

around  =  ARUN

they 

ll  =  FU

say  =  SAGI

that 

I  =  MI

am 

quite  =  KITA

myself  =  MI+MEM

again.  =  AGEN

 

(d1)_____U SA/RI ARUN [MILE] SE SAGI FU E MI (BE) AGEN< KITA MI+MEM.

 

(d2)_____U [MILE] SE< ARUN  E SAGI FU  E MI AGEN< MI+MEM KITA[8].

 

 

Discussion:

      The same problem with 'ARUN [MILE] SE'. (d2) is nearer to the original than (d1).  The role of the copulas:

 

      miles around is where they will say

      what they will say is that me again quite myself.

 

 


 

 

(ax)        {EMOT} PA MI DO LU SU TU E MI LENA< KORU.

(bx)        U [MILE] SE< ARUN  E GORU PA< VONE BEHA MI< GU TI+VE.

(cx)        A HIMI PAS TI+PE I HU REMAN FU.

(dx)        U [MILE] SE< ARUN  E SAGI FU  E MI AGEN< MI+MEM KITA.

 

 

 

(ay)        Ye emotey pa mi do lu su tu e mi lenans koru.

(by)        U la milex sens arun e goru pans vone beha mins gu veyti.

(cy)        A himi pas peyti I hu reman fu.

(dy)        U la milex sens arun e sagi fu e mi agenay memmi kita.

 

Discussion:

Here one may see the `realization' of the various syntactic markers:

 

* [] as la ...x

 

* <  as ns after vowels:  lenans, sens, mins; < as ay after a consonant: agenay

* +  as y in peyti, veyti; + as null in memmi.

* the aside: ye emotey.



Translation II: Heine's 'Lorelei'.

 

 

 

Ich weiss nicht was soll es bedeuten,

Dass ich so traurig bin;

Ein Maerchen aus alten Zeiten,

Das kommt mir nicht aus dem Sinn.

 

Die Luft ist kuehl und es dunkelt,

Und ruhig fliesst der Rhein;

Der Gipfel des Berges funkelt

Im Abendsonnenschein.

 

Die schoenste Jungfrau sitzet

Dort oben wunderbar;

Ihr goldnes Geschmeide blitzet,

Sie kaemmt ihr goldenes Haar.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sie kaemmt es mit goldenem Kamme

Und singt ein Lied dabei;

Das hat eine wundersame,

Gewaltige Melodei.

 

Den Schiffer im kleinen Schiffe

Ergreift es mit wildem Weh;

Er schaut nicht die Felsenriffe,

Er schaut nur hinauf in die Hoeh.

 

Ich glaube, die Wellen verschlingen

Am Ende Schiffer und Kahn;

Und das hat mit ihrem Singen

Die Lore-Ley getan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

ich  =  MI       

weiss  =  NOGU   

nicht  =  NO     

was              

soll

es

bedeuten  =  MENA

dass  =  E       

ich  =  MI       

so  =  TI+VE

traurig  =  SADA

bin;

 

(I don't know what it could mean that I am so sad;)              

 

(a)___________________________MI NOGU NO< MENA (E) MI SADA TI+VE.

 

Discussion:

      Straightforward translation: Me knowing not meaning = Me sad so. The copula is not obvious, and if omitted, one has a longer chain with the same meaning: Me knowing not meaning my sadness so.

      Notice that this is ungrammatical English, but quite comprehensible. I wish I knew Chinese, it is probably even nearer to LANUG.

 


 

 

ein

Maerchen  =  TORI

aus

alten  =  ODO

Zeiten  =  TE

das  =  E

kommt

mich  =  MI

nicht  =  NO

aus   ( leave  =  LEVA  =  kommt aus)

den

Sinn.  =  ZINIK  =  MINID

 

(an old time story that won't leave my mind.)

 

(b1) ______________________________TORI TE ODO E NO LEVA MINID MI.

(b2) ____________________________TORI TE ODO TO/LEVA NO< MINID MI.

 

Discussion:

      Again, straightforward: Story of time old is the thing that no leave mind mine. The words in italics are added just to make the English smoother (cannot make it right, because in English a modifier must precede, in LANUG follow).

      One important point: leave (=LEVA) is a transitive verb, which can be modified by its subject[9] and direct object, in addition to other modifiers. 'TORI LEVA MINID' could be: 'story leaves mind' or 'mind leaves story'. Well! in this case it doesn't matter[10], so one does not use the WODU 'DO' or 'SU' to mark subject or object.

 


 

Die

Luft  =  ARI

ist

kuehl  =  KOL

und  =  I

es

dunkelt  =  OHA+DAKA

und  =  I

ruhig  =  KAMO

fliesst  =  VULU

der

Rhein;  =  [REIN]

 

(The air is cool, and it's darkening, and the Rhine flows calmly.)

 

(c)___________________ARI KOL I OHA+DAKA I VULU KAMO< [REIN].

 

Discussion:

      Air cool, starts now dark, flowing calm Rhine. The cut (conjunction) 'I' is no more than a comma, the nearest thing to parataxis. OHA is a peculiar tense modifier, or 'adverb' = beginning now.

 

 

der

Gipfel  =  TOP

des

Berges  =  MONUT

funkelt  =  PAKI

im

Abendsonnenschein.  =  ZINE SUN VENIG

 

(The mountain peak sparkles in the evening sunshine.)

 

(d1)________________________________TOP MONUT TO/PAKI ZINE SUN VENIG.

(d2)________________________________TOP MONUT< PAKI ZINE SUN VENIG.

 

Discussion:

Two completely equivalent translations: (d1) uses rule #1, and (d2) rule #2. The fact that 'Abendsonnenschein' is compound in German[11] does not mean that LANUG must use a compound word; there is a phrase instead: ZINE SUN VENIG = shine of the sun in the evening.

 


 

die

schoenste  =  HI+BO

Jungfrau  =  MEDEN 

sitzet  =  SIT

dort  =  TA+PE

oben  =  HIHI

wunderbar;  =  VONED

 

(The most beautiful maiden sits up there, wonderful(ly); )

 

(e)_______________________MEDEN HI+BO< VONED SIT TA+PE HIHI.

 

 

ihr  =  FE

goldnes  =  GODU

Geschmeide  =  HE+ZELU[12]

blitzet  =  ZINE

sie  =  FE

kammt  =  KOMOB

ihr  =  FE,ONU

goldenes  =  GODU

Haar.  =  HEDA+HARI

 

(her golden jewelry shines, she combs her golden hair.)

 

(f) ____________HE+ZELU GODU< FE< ZINE I FE KOMOB HEDA+HARI GODU< ONU.

 

Discussion:

(e) and (f) are simple translations; just note the use of FE = female for 'she'.

 


 

 

sie  =  FE

kaemmt  =  KOMOB

es  =  DI

mit

goldenem  =  GODU

Kamme  =  IR+KOMOB[13]

und  =  I

singt  =  SINIG

ein

Lied  =  SINIG+INAZ,SONOG

dabei  =  SA+TE

das  =  DI

hat  =  HA

eine

wundersame  =  VONED

gewaltige  =  RONUG

Melodei.  =  MELO

 

(she combs it with a golden comb, and at the same time sings a song which has a wonderful, powerful melody.)

 

(g1) _______FE KOMOB IR(+KOMOB) GODU I SINIG SONOG SA+TE SO/HA MELO     VONED< RONUG.

(g2) _______FE KOMOB IR(+KOMOB) GODU I SINIG SA+TE< (SINIG+)INAZ HA     MELO VONED< RONUG.

 

Discussion:

      I dislike SINIG SONOG, because clearly both words refer to the same idea, so why should they be different? It just happened that both 'sing' and 'song' were in the list I munged to make up my vocabulary. But I much prefer (g2), with SINIG INAZ = sings an instance (of singing, obviously) and KOMOB IR = combs with a tool (for combing). I cannot have enough of the very generic words like ‘instance’, ‘tool’, to help building compound words economically.

 

 

 


 

 

den

Schiffer  =  BOTA+IKA,MA+BOTA

im  =  INI

kleinen  =  LIL

Schiffe  =  BOTA, ZIP

ergraeft  =  SEZI

es

mit

wildem  =  NO+KA+KONOR

Weh;  =  PANI

 

(The boatman in the small boat is seized by wild pain;[14])

 

(h1) ________________MA+BOTA INI BOTA LIL MA/SU SEZI PANI NO+KA+KONOR.

(h2) _______________BOTA+IKA INI BOTA LIL BO/SU SEZI PANI NO+KA+KONOR.

(h3) ________________IKA+BOTA INI BOTA LIL I/SU SEZI PANI NO+KA+KONOR.

 

Discussion.

 

      MA+BOTA = male in a boat, IKA+BOTA = professional having to do with boats, both reasonable for 'boatman'. 'wild' is translated as 'uncontrollable' = NO+KA+KONOR.

      Notice that the prefix marker of subordination may be ambiguous: in (h2) BO/SU refers to BOTA+IKA or to BOTA, indifferently. But this may be rearranged as in (h3), which is unambiguous.

      All versions use SU to translate the passive English version 'is seized' instead of the German active form.

      Stylistically they are as good as the original (!!); 'boatman' is placed first for emphasis. In German this is done by using the accusative 'den Schiffer', in English by making 'boatman' the subject, so it can start the sentence, and LANUG follows English in this case.

 

 


 

er  =  MA

schaut  =  LOKO

nicht  =  NO

die

Felsenriffe  =  RAGO+REF

er  =  MA

schaut  =  LOKO

nur  =  ONIL

hinauf  =  AVA+HIHI

in

die

Hoeh'.  =  HIHI

 

(He does not look at the reefs, he only looks high above.)

 

(i1) ________________MA NO LOKO RAGO+REF A ((MA) LOKO) ONIL< AVA+HIHI.

(i2) __________________________MA LOKO NON RAGO+REF LO/ONIL< AVA+HIHI.

 

Discussion

      Note the use of MA = male for 'he'.

      (i1) is a translation as two phrases joined by A = but, and (i2) is a single phrase forming a sentence. It sounds better, being shorter and similar to the original, which uses no conjunction, but repeats 'looks' = 'er schaut'. One might use 'I' in LANUG.

 

 

 

ich  =  MI

glaube  =  PENUS

die

Wellen  =  VAVA SE

verschlingen  =  VALO

am

Ende  =  ENADY

         IFO  =  will complete in the future

Schiffer  =  BOTA+IKA, MA+BOTA

und

Kahn;  =  BOTA, ZIP

 

(I think that at the end the waves swallow the boatman and boat; )

 

(j) __________________MI PENUS E VAVA SE< VALO IFO< (SU) MA+BOTA< BOTA.

 

Discussion

      VAVA = wave, SE = several, 'VAVA SE' = 'waves', one way to show plural.

      IFO = 'will end in the future', another fancy tense modifier.

      SU is not really needed: the choice between 'boatman swallows waves' vs. 'waves swallow boatman' is clear, although the first phrase is a funny version of the second.

 

 


 

und

das  =  TI

hat

mit

ihrem  =  FE

Singen  =  SINIG

die

Lore-Ley  =  [LORELEI]

getan.  =  DO PA

 

(and this has done by her singing the Lorelei.)

 

(k1) __________________________________[LORELEI] DO (PA<) TI< SINIG FE.

(k2) _____________________________ [LORELEI] RI< DO (PA<) TI< SINIG FE.

(k3) _____________________________TI DO (PA<) SINIG FE DO/DO [LORELEI].

(k4) ___________________________________TI DO (PA<) SINIG FE [LORELEI].

 

Discussion

      (k1) is a straightforward translation, but Loreley is de-emphasized by taking its very natural position as first word in the sentence. One could add RI, as in (k2).

      One could also make the word Loreley, for emphasis, appear as late as possible, as it does in the original. This is done in (k3). The combination DO/DO results from the explicit subject 'DO [LORELEI]' subordinated to the first DO = 'did'; it also shows that the first word, TI, not being the subject of DO, probably is its object: Loreley did this. If the subject remains unmarked:

       TI DO (PA<) SINIG FE DO/[LORELEI].

one might translate: this did by female singing a Loreley. ('this' as a subject, 'Loreley' as object; not likely, but admissible, especially since 'Loreley' has no meaning yet).

      But I don't like DO/DO, so eventually I settled on (k4). The chain 'FE [LORELEI]' means 'she, further qualified by Loreley', or 'she, Loreley' in apposition. Then there is a clear choice between 'it did a Loreley' and 'Loreley did it' as we now know Loreley is a she. The parsing is clumsy, the meaning clear.[15]

 

 


 

 

 

(ax)        MI NOGU NO< MENA MI SADA TI+VE.

 

(bx)        TORI TE ODO E NO LEVA MINID MI.

 

(cx)        ARI KOL I OHA+DAKA I VULU KAMO< [REIN].

 

(dx)        TOP MONUT TO/PAKI ZINE SUN VENIG.

 

(ex)        MEDEN HI+BO< VONED ME/SIT TA+PE HIHI.

 

(fx)        HE+ZELU GODU< FE< ZINE I FE KOMOB HEDA+HARI GODU< ONU.

 

(gx)        FE KOMOB IR GODU I SINIG SA+TE< MELO VONED<  RONUG.

 

(hx)        MA+BOTA INI BOTA LIL MA/SU SEZI PANI NO+KA+KONOR.

 

(ix)        MA LOKO NO< RAGO+REF LO/ONIL< AVA+HIHI.

 

(jx)        MI PENUS E VAVA SE< VALO IFO< SU MA+BOTA< BOTA.

 

(kx)        TI DO PA< SINIG FE [LORELEI].

 

 

 

 

 

 

(ay)        Mi nogu nons mena mi sada veyti;

 

(by)        Tori te odo e no leva minid mi.

 

(cy)        Ari kol I dakaoha I vulu kamons la Reinix;

 

(dy)        Top monut to’paki zine sun venig.

 

(ey)        Meden boyhins voned me’sit taype hihi;

 

(fy)        Heyzelu goduns fens zine I fe komob hedayhari goduns onu.

 

(gy)        Fe komob ir godu I sinig saytens melo voneday ronug.

 

(hy)        Maybota in bota lil ma’su sezi pani noykaykonor,

 

(iy)        Ma loko nons ragoyref, lo’onilay avayhihi.

 

(jy)        Mi penus e vava sens valo ifons su maybotans bota;

 

(ky)        Ti do pans sinig fe la Lorelix.



Translation III : about hackers.

 


 

A = but

ABO = about

AL = all

AMUN = amount

ATA = attack

BA = bad

BE = be, exist

BI = big

BOLON = blond

DA = idea, abstract

DAK = dark

DANEZ = danger

DETA = detail

DISO = discover

E = coopula, is

ENAK = screen

EPA = experience

ERAS = erase

FALI = fail

FASE = face

FOL = after

FOD = fat

GE = general(ized)

GESU = guest

HA = have

HARI = hair

HEDA = head

HI = most

HIDE = hide

HINIT = hint

HIPE = whisper

HIT = hit,strike

HOLE = hole

HOTU = host

HOVU = however

I = and

IKA = ...ist,...er

IMA = image

IN = in

INUG = young

KA = can,able

KI = quotation

KIL = kill

KO = end quote

KU = quality

LETA = letter

LUZ = light(visible)

LITU = list

LON = long

MA = male, he

 

MANAZ = manage

MAZ = maximum,most

MAZO = major

MO = more

MODI = modify

NA = no,without

NIT = night

NO = no,not

NOGU = know

NOV = new

OB = boy

ONIL = only

ONU = itself,own

PEHA = perhaps

PESI = special

PESIL = pencil

PI = person

PO = opposite

POSIN = poison

POPU = people

PU = purpose

PUGA = program

RAKO = crack

RAKU = track

RASI = trace

REDA = read

REZA = breath(e)

RITE = write

ROM = room

ROTO = root

SAFE = safe(ty)

SE = plural

SEME = seem

SI = the one who

SIGO = cigarette

SITEM = system

SIT = sit

SU = suffer,passive

TE = time

TI = this

TOL = tool

U = therefore

UDI = audit

UDU = 2

UKU = 4

UNU = 1

UZU = 0

VAG = vague

VATO = waste

VERE = weary,tired

ZONI = join


 

 


 

      Ob inugay ha hariyheda bolonay bayfod o’sit rom dak. Rom vagluz onil C64 EMO geyleta ukuzu. Si’rezain lonay sigo la Benson and Hedgex sitemrakoika verens la telnetex sitem la .mil-ixay nayfasens folyununs litu mans hit. Ki gesu – gesu konk ki roto – roto konk ki sitem – ikaymanaz ko fali al. No da mazo e ma ha nit al. Ma eras pesilay hotuns litu i geyrite suyba pehans folyunu.

 

      Ti seme ima popuns sitemrakoika e pi inugay nayepa ha amunbi te vato pu inzoni sitem unu poymo. Hovu be sitemrakoika danez mo hi. Pi nogu dataal tol novmazay safeudins rako I pi ka modi daysens pu ata pesi i pi ka rite onuns puga se. Pi no onil reda abo safeyhole novmaz a onu diso la buguxay kuykaysuwba. Kaykil ka udu hit posinge u’hide rakuns no hipenks hinit rasi.

 

 

 

 

Ob   inugay ha    hariyheda   bolonay     bayfod  o’sit  rom  dak.

boy  young  have  head+hair   blond       bad+fat sit    room dark

                                          greasy

 

Rom  vagluz      onil C64 enak    geyleta             ukuzu.

room vague+light only     screen  generalized+letter  40

                                  character

 

Si’rezain[16] lonay sigo      la Benson and Hedgex sitemrakoika    

breathe+in long  cigarette                     system+crack+ist

drag in                                         system-cracker

 

verens la telnetex sitem la .mil-ixay nayfasens folyununs litu mans hit.

weary    (telnet)  system             no+face   one+after list his  hit

                                      faceless  next

 

 

Ki gesu – gesu konk ki roto – roto konk ki sitem – ikaymanaz  ko fali al.

  guest  guest ’     root   root ’      system  manage+ist ’  fail all

                                                   manager

 

No da[17]      mazo e   ma ha  nit   al.

no (thing) major    he has night all

doesn’t matter

 

Ma eras  pesilay hotuns litu i geyrite           suyba      pehans folyunu.

he erase pencil  host   list   generalized+write suffer+bad maybe  one+after[18]

                                                 victim

 

Ti   seme ima    popuns  sitemrakoika     e pi     inugay nayepans

this seem image  people  system+crack+ist   person young  without+experience

 

ha   amunbi      te   vato  pu      inzoni   sitem   unu  poymo.

have big+ammount time waste purpose in+join  system  one  not+more

                                    connect               merely,just

 

Hovu    be     sitemrakoika     danez  mo   hi.

however exist  system+crack+ist danger more very

                                very much more dangerous

 

Pi     nogu dataal     tol  novmazay  safeudins      rako

person know all+detail tool new+max  safe(ty)+audit crack

                            latest

 

i pi     ka  modi   daysens[19]        pu      ata    pesi

  person can modify idea+several    purpose attack special

                    them

 

i pi     ka  rite  onuns puga    se.

  person can write own   program several

 

Pi      no  onil reda  abo   safeyhole     novmaz

person  not only read  about safe(ty)+hole new+most

 

a   onu     diso    la buguxay kuykaysuwba.

but himself discover   (bug)   quality+can+suffer*bad

                               vulnerability

 

Kaykil   ka  udu hit    posinge            u’hide rakuns

can+kill can two strike generalized+poison hide   track 

deadly                  poisonous(metaph.)

 

 

no   hipenks[20]     hinit rasi.

no   whisper      hint  trace

      A young boy, with greasy blonde hair, sitting in a dark room. The room is illuminated only by the luminescense of the C64's 40 character screen. Taking another long drag from his Benson and Hedges cigarette, the weary system cracker telnets to the next faceless ’.mil’ system on his hit list. ’guest -- guest’, ’root -- root’,  and ’system -- manager’ all fail. No matter. He has all night. He pencils the host off of his list, and tiredly types in the next potential victim.

 

      This seems to be the popular image of a system cracker. Young, inexperienced, and possessing vast quantities of time to waste, to get into just one more system. However, there is a far more dangerous type of system cracker out there. One who knows the ins and outs of the latest security auditing and cracking tools, who can modify them for specific attacks, and who can write his/her own programs. One who not only reads about the latest security holes, but also personally discovers bugs and vulnerabilities. A deadly creature that can both strike poisonously and hide its tracks without a whisper or hint of a trail.

 


 

Translation IV: the Babel text (finally).

 

1. And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech.

 

2. And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there.

 

3. And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar.

 

4. And they said, Go to, let us build us a city, and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.

 

5. And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded.

 

6. And the Lord said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do.

 

7. Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one anothers speech.

 

8. So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city.

 

9. Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the Lord scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.

 

 

 

1. Vaiehi kol haarec safa ajat udvarim ajadim.

 

2. Vaiehi benos`am miqedem vaimceu biq`a beerec Xin`ar vaiexvu xam.

 

3. Vaiomru ix el reehu: Hava nilbena levenim unisrefa lisrefa; vatehi lahem halevena laeven vehajemar haia lahem lejomer.

 

4. Vaiomru: Hava nivne lanu ir umigdal veroxo baxamaim, venaase lanu xem pen nafuc al pnei kol haarec.

 

5. Vaiered I' lir'ot et hair veet hamigdal axer banu bnei haadam.

 

6. Vaiomer I': Hen am ejad vesafa ajat lekulam, veze hejilam laasot, veata lo ibacar mehem kol axer iazmu laasot.

 

7. Hava nerda venavla xam sfatam, axer lo ixmeu ix sfat reehu.

 

8. Vaiafec I' otam mixam al pnei kol haarec, vaijdelu livnot hair.

 

9. Al ken qara xma Bavel, ki xam balal I' sfat kol haarec umixam heficam I' al pnei kol haarec.

 

 

 

      Try your luck, using the vocabulary and scheme provided. In the scheme I kept the phrases apart, to reflect the structure of the Hebrew text which uses only 'and' as a conjunction. LAN cuts are a little more varied.

      On the other hand, I did not translate word for word. For instance, the phrase 'upon the face of the whole earth' with its lovely olden sound, is a calque of the Hebrew 'al pnei kol haarec', and 'al pnei' = 'on the face' is the only way to say 'over' in Hebrew, and not some metaphor. So I translated the word 'over'. Similarly 'the children of men', in Hebrew 'bnei haadam' is actually the only way to say 'mankind', so I translated 'mankind'.

 

 

 

 


AL all

ANI any

BA bad

BE exist

BEGIN begin

BIKA brick

BULI build

BUNA burn

DA abstract,idea

DESI decision

DO do,act

DONU down

E copula

EDA the earth

FAME fame

FI become

FID find

GE general(ize)

GO go

HA have

HAP happen

HE group

HEVEN heaven

HO entire,whole

I and

IN in

ITI,TED instead

MUT one another, mutual

LANAD land

LAN language

LE less

IM imperative

MAK make

MAKID mankind

MI I,me,my

MIZ mix

MOTA mortar

NAM name

NI we,us,our

NO no,not

ONE one

OVE over

PA past

PE place

PEPO,FOK people

PI person

PU purpose

RISE rise

FOM from

SAGI say

SE many,several,plural

SEGE see

SILEM slime

SITI city

SU suffer, direct complement,       passive

SUN sun

TA that

TE time

TI this

TONE stone

TOP top

KITI stop doing, quit

TORU tower

U therefore

UNAS understand

VAL valley

VEL dwell

VODA word

ZE all kinds of, various

ZO cause to, causative

ZORUN journey


 

 

 

 

1.      EDA HO< HA PA< LAN<> VODA+HE[21] ONE.

 

2.      HAP PA

    E   PI+SE FID VAL IN LANAD [XINAR] FI/ZORUN FOM SUN+RISE[22]

    I   VEL PA< TA+PE.

 

3.      SAGI PA< MUT

    E   IM NI< MAK BIKI LE/BUNA.

 

        HA PA< PI+SE< BIKI TED TONE HA/SILEM TED MOTA.

 

4.      SAGI PI+SE< PA

    E   IM NI< BULI SITI< TORU TOP IN HEVEN

    I   FAME NI

    E   PU NO FI+PE+ZE[23] OVE EDA AL.

 

5.      [IAHVE] GO+DONU PA< PU SEGE SITI SU BULI MAKID.

 

6.      SAGI [IAHVE]

    E   IM GE+SEGE

    E   BE FOK ONE

    I   HA LAN ONE

    I   PI+SE BEGIN DO TI

    I   NO ZO+NO*DO[24] PI+SE< TI+TE< ANI+DA PI+SE DESI+BEGIN[25] DO

 

7.      IM NI< GO+DONU MIZ+BA TA+PE< LAN PI+SE MI/PU NO UNAS LAN                MUT.

 

8.      [IAHVE]  ZO+PE+ZE PA< PI+SE OVE EDA AL

    I   KITI PA< PI+SE< BULI SITI.

 

9.      TA+PE [IAHVE]  BA+MIZ PA< LAN EDA AL

    I   FOM TA+PE [IAHVE]  ZO+PE+ZE PA< PI+SE OVE EDA AL

    U   NAME  [BABEL].


 

 

1.    Eda hons ha pans lanoy vodayhe one.

 

2.    Hap pa e seypi fid val in lanad la Sinarax fi’zorun sunrise i vel       pans taype.

 

3.    Sagi pans mut e im nins mak biki i’buna. Ha pans seypins biki     ted tone ha’silem ted mota.

 

4.    Sagi seypins pa e im nins buli sitins toru top in heven i fame    ni e pu no fiypeyze ove eda al.

 

5.    La Iahvex goydonu pans pu sege siti su buli makid.

 

6.    Sagi pans la Iahvex e im geysege e be fok one i ha lan one i      seypy begin pans do ti i no zoynowdo seypins teytins daani seypi    desiybegin do.

 

7.    Im nins goydonu mizba taypens lan seypi mi’pu no unas lan mut.

 

8.    La Iahvex zoypeyze pans seypi ove eda al i kiti pans seypi buli siti.

 

9.    Taype la Iahvex mizba pans lan eda al i fom taype la Iahvex zoypeyze pans seypi ove eda al u nam la Babelex.

 

 

 

 

 



 

[1] What would be a better word? ‘regret’?

 

[2]  ‘and’ usually untranslated, the markers <> take care of that.

 

[3]  ‘LU’ is a transitive verb, and needs the modifiers ‘DO’, ‘SU’. ‘MI LU TU’ is obviously ‘I love you’, but only for speakers of SOV languages.

 

[4] Properly the singular ‘thou’, not ‘you’.

[5] This ‘and’ is translated.

 

[6]  ‘how well’ translated as ‘so well’; ‘how’ is not a question word here.

 

[7] Another ‘and’ translated: between phrases, meaning ‘and then…’

 

[8] ‘MI+MEM KITA’ sounds better than ‘KITA MI+ MEM’ because ‘KITA’ is more of a modifier, so it should follow.

 

[9] Notice there is nothing special about the relation subject-predicate (called nexus by Jespersen). Each may be considered subordinate to the other, and in LANGU the question is: which comes first.

 

[10] and all the air a solemn stillness holds

 

[11] and sufficiently unique to land you on Lorelei in an Internet search.

 

[12] group+jewel = jewelry

 

[13] tool+combing = a comb

[14]             Litterally: it seizes with wild pain the boatman… Now, a good  semantics question: what’s ‘it’? (or ‘es’ in ‘ergreift es’) ? The whole scene, with the triply golden maiden and wonderful evening light— I guess.

                “I know what ‘it’ means well enough, when I find a thing,” said the Duck; “it’s generally a frog…”

                And the moral of this is—‘No matter how much you worry about the sense, the words will take care of themselves’.

 

[15] and there’s glory for you!

 

[16] the prefix si’  shows this word qualifies ‘sitemrakoika’; or maybe ‘sigo’? the decision is made by sense: ‘the cracker breathes…’ vs. ‘the cigarette is breathed…’

[17] Note the use of ‘da’ for ‘it’ which refers to an abstract noun.

 

[18] ‘he erases with a pencil the host from the list , and types the  victim possible next.’

Notice that ‘perhaps’ modifies ‘victim’, thus ‘possible victim’.  Also ‘generalized write’ is ‘type’ in this case.

[19] ‘DA+SE’ = ‘ideas’ = ‘abstractions’  translates ‘them’.

[20] Notice the use of  -nks :  no (whisper or hint) of a trail. ‘whisper or hint’ modifies ‘no’ and is modified by ‘trail’.

[21] set of words = vocabulary. The Hebrew ‘dvarim ajadim’ is really exotic: ‘words one’. In modern Hebrew it would mean ‘a few words’.

 

[22] east, of course; a compound instead of  ESU.

 

[23] become various places = scatter

 

[24] cause not to do = prevent

 

[25] decide+begin = initiative